中国取代墨西哥成为美国移民第一来源国 日期:2015-06-18 来源: 浏览次数:


 

5月份,美国人口普查局发布了一份调查统计报告,指出在2013年,中国取代墨西哥成为美国移民第一来源国。今天,小编就带大家来看下这份报告。

中国取代墨西哥成为美国移民第一来源国
作者:EricJensen

根据我的研究调查,2013年中国首次取代墨西哥成为美国移民的第一来源国。在过去十年里,中国和印度的移民人数不断增长,而墨西哥却在下降。在美国移民来源国排名中靠前的其他亚洲国家,依次为:韩国、菲律宾和日本。这个移民来源国格局在最近几十年发生了显著的变化。

美国移民的各种族比例也在逐渐发生转变。在2000年,国外出生的移民中拉美裔的人口占41.2%,这一比例在2009年下降到30.1%;而亚裔人口比例从23.6%上升到34.7%。截至到2013年,亚裔美国人口比例增长到40.2%,而拉美裔美国人口比例减少到25.5%。

美国人口普查局统计了从世界各地来的移民,包括来美国一年的外国出生人口。根据2013年发布的《美国社区调查》数据显示,2013年移民美国的总人口数有120.1万,其中14.7万人来自中国,12.9万人来自印度,12.5万人来自墨西哥,中国首次成为最大的移民来源国,而来自印度和墨西哥的移民人口数差距不大。在2012年,该报告的数据显示,墨西哥以12.5万人排名第一,中国以12.4万人排名第二,两者的数据差异也并不大。

移民人口中少数种族占比的改变直接导致美国海外种族比例的改变。虽然在2013年拉美裔依旧是最大的少数民族族群,但亚裔人口中有65.4%的比例是外国出生人口,相比较而言拉美裔只有35.2%的人口是外国出生人口。根据以上数据可知,亚裔海外人口数对美国亚裔移民总数的影响远远超过拉美裔。

随着时间的推移,美国移民来源国的排名发生了戏剧性的变化。最早的移民潮发生在北欧和西欧,来自南部和东部的移民逐步成为了整个地区的主宰者。最近的移民潮主要是来自拉丁美洲,其次是亚洲。这是否预示着将有新的不同的移民潮出现仍待观察。

下图展示了2000年至2013年外国出生人口的数量,这些人在一年前从中国、印度、墨西哥来到美国。

 

 


* 根据出生地来统计的2000-2013年在美国居住超过1年的外国人口数表

原文网站:www.census.gov

China Replaces Mexico as the Top SendingCountry for Immigrants to the United StatesPosted on May 1, 2015
Written by Eric Jensen

Based on my research, in 2013, China replaced Mexico as the top sending countryfor immigrants to the United States. This followed a decade where immigrationfrom China and India increased while immigration from Mexico decreased. Othertop immigrant-sending countries in 2013 from Asia included Korea, thePhilippines and Japan. This new pattern in the national origins of recent immigrantsis a notable change from recent decades.

The racial and ethnic composition of immigration flows to the United States hasalso been shifting. In 2000, nearly half of all foreign-born immigrants, 41.2percent, were Hispanic, compared with 23.6 percent for the non-Hispanic Asianalone population. Since 2009, a greater proportion of foreign-born immigrantshave been non-Hispanic Asian alone (34.7 percent) than Hispanic (30.1 percent).By 2013, the percentage of non-Hispanic Asian alone had increased to 40.2percent of the total immigration flow, while the percentage Hispanic haddropped to 25.5 percent.

The U.S. Census Bureau’s Population Estimates Program measures netinternational migration, including the foreign-born population whose residenceone year ago was abroad. According to the 2013 American Community Survey, therewere 1,201,000 immigrants. China was the top sending country with 147,000,followed by India with 129,000, and Mexico with 125,000. The numbers ofimmigrants from India and Mexico were not statistically different from eachother. In 2012, the American Community Survey showed that Mexico and China werethe top two sending countries with 125,000 and 124,000, respectively (whichwere not significantly different from each other).

Change in the racial and ethnic composition of immigrant flows contributes tothe overall racial and ethnic makeup of the United States. While Hispanics arestill the largest racial or ethnic minority group, a larger percentage of theAsian population was foreign-born (65.4) compared with the Hispanic population(35.2) in 2013. Given the numbers above, it is likely that the contribution ofimmigration to overall population growth will be greater for Asians than forHispanics.

Historically, the national origins of immigrant flows have changeddramatically. The earliest waves of immigrants originated in Northern andWestern Europe. Immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe later predominated.The most recent wave of immigrants has largely been from Latin America, and toa lesser extent, Asia. Whether these recent trends signal a new and distinctwave of immigration is yet to be seen.

 

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